Something Cool

I found something cool on my harddrive today; an old JavaScript snippet that I wrote some years ago when I was heavily into Lisp. Yes, Lisp. I love Lisp. It’s the mother of all languages and in a perfect world I’d spend my days hacking cool stuff in Lisp or Clojure rather than maintaining a behemoth of a Java web app that I secretly hate.

Anyway, even if you’ve never heard of Lisp you need to know two things:

  1. In Lisp, you work very close to your data structures. Everything, including the code that you write, is expressed as lists or variants of lists.
  2. The most basic data structure is what is known as a cons cell. Simply put, a cons is CONStructed from two arbitrary values, which can be either primitive or a pointers to other cons cells.

Lisp has a function called cons which takes two arguments and returns a cons cell. Two other functions, named car and cdr for historic reasons, takes a cons cell as argument and returns the first or second value respectively. This doesn’t seem especially exciting but is cool, since if you have these three functions you can create linked lists, and all other structures (trees, hash tables, etc.) can be expressed in terms of lists.

So, in a minimal environment where you don’t even have basic data structures such as arrays, structs or objects with value slots, how exactly do create cons cells? Well, it turns out that as long as you have a facility for defining and applying functions, and a branching mechanism, you can express cons cells in a functional manner:

function cons(a, b) {
return function(d) {
return d == 0 ? a : b;
function car(c) {
return, 0);
function cdr(c) {
return, 1);

This idea isn’t mine; it has been around for ages in Lisp and Scheme, but I implemented it in JavaScript to see what it would be like. I find this construct very simple and beautiful. By calling the cons function we create a closure with the variables a and b bound to the supplied arguments. cons then returns an anonymous function which is simply a promise to return either a or b.

> var c = cons(17, 23);
> car(c)
> cdr(c)

Of course, we could to without the car and cdr functions; they are merely syntactic sugar. Since the value of c is a function we can just call it directly:

> c(0)
> c(1)

Finally, this is how we’d go about creating and traversing that linked list:

> var l = cons(1, cons(2, cons(3, null)))
> for(i = l; i != null; i = cdr(i)) { console.log(car(i)); }

So, using only functions and branching logic we can derive just about any data structure. I remember learning about this in a CS class where we used a lot of Scheme, and it was mindblowing.

It still is.